Contact Us     Maps & Directions     About Us
Find a Provider
Your Medical Home
Find a Facility
Plan Your Visit
Find a Provider
Giving
Mother Frances Hospital
Heart Hospital
Neuroscience Institute
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Search Health Information    Potassium

Potassium

Uses

Potassium is an essential mineral needed to regulate water balance, levels of acidity, blood pressure , and neuromuscular function. This mineral also plays a critical role in the transmission of electrical impulses in the heart.

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
3 Stars
Hypertension in People Not Taking Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
2,400 mg per under a doctor's supervision
Potassium may be effective at lowering blood pressure, according to an analysis of trials.

Potassium supplements in the amount of at least 2,400 mg per day lower blood pressure, according to an analysis of 33 trials.1 However, potassium supplements greater than 100 mg per tablet require a prescription, and the low-dose potassium supplements available without a prescription can irritate the stomach if taken in large amounts. Moreover, some people, such as those taking potassium-sparing diuretics, should not take potassium supplements. Therefore, the use of potassium supplements for lowering blood pressure should only be done under the care of a doctor.

3 Stars
Kidney Stones and Abdominal Pain (Magnesium Citrate)
1,600 mg daily potassium as citrate and 500 mg daily of magnesium as citrate
Supplementing with a combination of potassium citrate and magnesium citrate may reduce the recurrence rate of kidney stones.
Some citrate research conducted with people who have a history of kidney stones involves supplementation with a combination of potassium citrate and magnesium citrate. In one double-blind trial, the recurrence rate of kidney stones dropped from 64% to 13% for those receiving high amounts of both supplements.2 In that trial, people were instructed to take six pills per day—enough potassium citrate to provide 1,600 mg of potassium and enough magnesium citrate to provide 500 mg of magnesium. Both placebo and citrate groups were also advised to restrict salt, sugar, animal protein, and foods rich in oxalate. Other trials have also shown that potassium and magnesium citrate supplementation reduces kidney stone recurrences.3
2 Stars
Cardiac Arrhythmia
1,000 mg daily under medical supervision
In one study, people taking hydrochlorothiazide for high blood pressure saw a significant reduction in arrhythmias when they supplemented with potassium.

Patients taking hydrochlorothiazide for high blood pressure had a significant reduction in arrhythmias when supplemented with 1 gram twice per day of potassium hydrochloride (supplying 1040 mg per day of elemental potassium ). Those results were not improved by adding 500 mg twice per day of magnesium hydroxide (supplying 500 mg per day of elemental magnesium) to the potassium.4 Low serum concentrations of potassium were found to be associated with a higher incidence of arrhythmia in a large population study.5

2 Stars
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Magnesium Aspartate)
1 gram of aspartates is taken twice per day
Potassium-magnesium aspartate has shown benefits for chronically fatigued people in some trials.

The combination of potassium aspartate and magnesium aspartate has shown benefits for chronically fatigued people in double-blind trials.6 , 7 , 8 , 9 However, these trials were performed before the criteria for diagnosing CFS was established, so whether these people were suffering from CFS is unclear. Usually 1 gram of aspartates is taken twice per day, and results have been reported within one to two weeks.

2 Stars
Congestive Heart Failure
Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Potassium can be beneficial for heart patients, but talk to your doctor first. Several drugs for CHF may cause potassium retention, making extra potassium dangerous.

Magnesium deficiency frequently occurs in people with CHF, and such a deficiency may lead to heart arrhythmias . Magnesium supplements have reduced the risk of these arrhythmias.10 People with CHF are often given drugs that deplete both magnesium and potassium ; a deficiency of either of these minerals may lead to an arrhythmia.11 Many doctors suggest magnesium supplements of 300 mg per day.

Whole fruit and fruit and vegetable juice, which are high in potassium, are also recommended by some doctors. One study showed that elderly men who consumed food prepared with potassium-enriched salt (containing about half potassium chloride and half sodium chloride) had a 70% reduction in deaths due to heart failure and a significant reduction in medical costs for cardiovascular disease, when compared with men who continued to use regular salt.12 While increasing potassium intake can be beneficial for heart patients, this dietary change should be discussed with a healthcare provider, because several drugs given to people with CHF may actually cause retention of potassium, making dietary potassium, even from fruit, dangerous.

2 Stars
Premenstrual Syndrome
600 mg daily
A preliminary trial found that women with severe PMS who took potassium supplements had complete resolution of PMS symptoms within four menstrual cycles.

A preliminary, uncontrolled trial found that women with severe PMS who took potassium supplements had complete resolution of PMS symptoms within four menstrual cycles.13 Most participants took 400 mg of potassium per day as potassium gluconate plus 200 mg of potassium per day as potassium chloride for the first two cycles, then switched to solely the gluconate form (600 mg potassium per day) for the remainder of the year-long trial. Without exception, all of the women found their symptoms (i.e., bloating, fatigue, irritability, etc.) decreasing gradually over three cycles and disappearing completely by the fourth cycle. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these preliminary observations.

How It Works

How to Use It

The best way to obtain extra potassium is to eat several pieces of fruit per day, as well as liberal amounts of vegetables. The amount of potassium found in the diet ranges from about 2.5 grams to about 5.8 grams per day. The amount allowed in supplements—99 mg per tablet or capsule—is very low, considering that one banana can contain 500 mg. Check with your physician before taking large amounts of potassium since it may irritate the stomach.

Where to Find It

Most fruits are excellent sources of potassium. Beans, milk, and vegetables contain significant amounts of potassium.

Possible Deficiencies

So-called primitive diets provided much greater levels of potassium than modern diets, which may provide too little. Gross deficiencies, however, are rare except in cases of prolonged vomiting, diarrhea , or use of “potassium-depleting” diuretic drugs. People taking one of these drugs are often advised by their doctor to take supplemental potassium. Prescription amounts of potassium provide more than the amounts sold over the counter but not more than the amount found in several pieces of fruit.

Interactions

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

Potassium and sodium work together in the body to maintain muscle tone, blood pressure, water balance, and other functions. Many researchers believe that part of the blood pressure problem caused by too much salt (which contains sodium) is made worse by too little dietary potassium.

People with kidney failure should not take potassium supplements, except under careful medical supervision.

Interactions with Medicines

Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

Replenish Depleted Nutrients

  • Albuterol

    Therapeutic amounts of intravenous salbutamol (albuterol) in four healthy people were associated with decreased plasma levels of calcium , magnesium , phosphate, and potassium .22 Decreased potassium levels have been reported with oral,23 intramuscular, and subcutaneous albuterol administration.24 How frequently this effect occurs is not known; whether these changes are preventable through diet or supplementation is also unknown.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Bendroflumethiazide

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,25 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.26 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.27

    People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.28 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.29 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

    Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300–600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.30 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.31

  • Bisacodyl

    Prolonged and frequent use of stimulant laxatives, including bisacodyl, may cause excessive and unwanted loss of water, potassium, and other nutrients from the body.32 , 33 Bisacodyl should be used for a maximum of one week, or as directed on the package label. Excessive use of any laxative can cause depletion of many nutrients. In order to protect against multiple nutrient deficiencies, it is important to not overuse laxatives.34 People with constipation should consult with their doctor or pharmacist before using bisacodyl.

  • Bumetanide

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium. Loop diuretics may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,35 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.36 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.37

    People taking loop diuretics should be monitored by their doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.38 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake is another way of supplementing potassium. Magnesium supplementation is typically 300–400 mg per day.

  • Busulfan

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.39 , 40 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.41 , 42 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.43 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Capecitabine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.44 , 45 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.46 , 47 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.48 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Carboplatin

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.49 , 50 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.51 , 52 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.53 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Carmustine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.54 , 55 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.56 , 57 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.58 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Chlorambucil

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.59 , 60 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.61 , 62 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.63 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Chlorothiazide

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,64 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.65 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.66

    People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.67 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.68 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

    Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300–600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.69 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.70

  • Chlorthalidone

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,71 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.72 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.73

    People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.74 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.75 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

    Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300–600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.76 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.77

    >
  • Cisplatin

    Cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.78 , 79 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.80 , 81 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.82 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Cladribine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.83 , 84 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.85 , 86 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.87 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Colchicine

    Colchicine has been associated with impaired absorption of beta-carotene , fat, lactose (milk sugar), potassium , and sodium.88

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Cortisone

    Oral corticosteroids increase the urinary loss of potassium.89 This may not cause a significant problem for most people. Individuals who wish to increase potassium intake should eat more fruits, vegetables, and juices rather than taking over-the-counter potassium supplements, which do not contain significant amounts of potassium.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Cytarabine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.90 , 91 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.92 , 93 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.94 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Dexamethasone

    Oral corticosteroids increase the urinary loss of potassium.95 This may not cause a significant problem for most people. Individuals who wish to increase potassium intake should eat more fruits, vegetables, and juices rather than taking over-the-counter potassium supplements, which do not contain significant amounts of potassium.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Docetaxel

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.96 , 97 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.98 , 99 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.100 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    Glutathione , the main antioxidant found within cells, is frequently depleted in individuals on chemotherapy and/or radiation. Preliminary studies have found that intravenously injected glutathione may decrease some of the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation, such as diarrhea .101

  • Docusate

    Taking docusate increases the amount of potassium excreted from the body in the stool.102 Whether people taking docusate for long periods of time need to increase their intake of potassium is unknown.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Erlotinib

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.103 , 104 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.105 , 106 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.107 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Etoposide

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.108 , 109 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.110 , 111 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.112 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Felodipine

    Felodipine can lead to increased excretion of potassium.113 A potassium deficiency may result if potassium intake is not sufficient. People taking felodipine should eat a high-potassium diet and be checked regularly for low blood potassium by a doctor.

  • Floxuridine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.114 , 115 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.116 , 117 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.118 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Fludarabine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.119 , 120 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.121 , 122 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.123 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Furosemide

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium. Loop diuretics may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,124 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.125 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.126

    People taking loop diuretics should be monitored by their doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.127 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake is another way of supplementing potassium. Magnesium supplementation is typically 300–400 mg per day.

  • Gentamicin

    Gentamicin has been associated with hypokalemia (low potassium levels) in humans.128

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Hydrochlorothiazide

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,129 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.130 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.131

    People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.132 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.133 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

    Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300–600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.134 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.135

  • Hydroflumethiazide

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,136 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.137 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.138

    People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.139 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.140 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

    Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300–600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.141 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.142

  • Hydroxyurea

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.143 , 144 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.145 , 146 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.147 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Ifosfamide

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.148 , 149 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.150 , 151 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.152 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Indapamide

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,153 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.154 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.155

    People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.156 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.157 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

    Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300–600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.158 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.159

  • Irinotecan

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.161 , 162 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.163 , 164 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.165 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Lomustine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.166 , 167 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.168 , 169 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.170 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Mechlorethamine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.171 , 172 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.173 , 174 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.175 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Melphalan

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.176 , 177 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.178 , 179 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.180 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Mercaptopurine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.181 , 182 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.183 , 184 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.185 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    Many chemotherapy drugs can cause diarrhea , lack of appetite, vomiting, and damage to the gastrointestinal tract. Recent anti-nausea prescription medications are often effective. Nonetheless, nutritional deficiencies still occur.186 People undergoing chemotherapy should talk to their doctor about whether supplementing with a multivitamin-mineral will protect them against deficiencies.

  • Methylprednisolone

    Oral corticosteroids increase the urinary loss of potassium.194 This may not cause a significant problem for most people. Individuals who wish to increase potassium intake should eat more fruits, vegetables, and juices rather than taking over-the-counter potassium supplements, which do not contain significant amounts of potassium.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Metolazone

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,3 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.4 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.5

    People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.6 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.7 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

    Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300–600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.8 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.9

  • Mineral Oil

    Mineral oil has interfered with the absorption of many nutrients, including beta-carotene , calcium , phosphorus , potassium , and vitamins A , D , K , and E in some,195 but not all,196 research. Taking mineral oil on an empty stomach may reduce this interference. It makes sense to take a daily multivitamin-mineral supplement two hours before or after mineral oil. It is important to read labels, because many multivitamins do not contain vitamin K or contain inadequate (less than 100 mcg per day) amounts.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Neomycin

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium , carbohydrates, beta-carotene , fats, folic acid , iron , magnesium , potassium , sodium, and vitamin A , vitamin B12 , vitamin D , and vitamin K .197 , 198 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.199 , 200 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.201 , 202 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.203 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Polythiazide

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,204 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.205 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.206

    People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.207 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.208 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

    Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300–600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.209 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.210

  • Prednisolone

    Oral corticosteroids increase the urinary loss of potassium.211 This may not cause a significant problem for most people. Individuals who wish to increase potassium intake should eat more fruits, vegetables, and juices rather than taking over-the-counter potassium supplements, which do not contain significant amounts of potassium.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Prednisone

    Oral corticosteroids increase the urinary loss of potassium.212 This may not cause a significant problem for most people. Individuals who wish to increase potassium intake should eat more fruits, vegetables, and juices rather than taking over-the-counter potassium supplements, which do not contain significant amounts of potassium.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Salsalate

    Salsalate and aspirin are rapidly converted in the body to salicylic acid. Taking large amounts of aspirin can result in lower than normal blood levels of potassium,214 though it is not known whether this change is significant. Controlled studies are needed to determine whether people taking salsalate are at risk for potassium deficiency.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Sulindac

    Four people who took sulindac developed high blood levels of potassium, which returned to normal within a few days after the drug was stopped.215 Controlled research is needed to determine whether potassium supplements or a high potassium diet might aggravate this problem. Until more information is available, people taking sulindac and potassium supplements, potassium containing salt substitutes, or large amounts of fruits and vegetables should have potassium blood levels checked regularly by their doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Tetracycline

    Tetracycline can interfere with the activity of folic acid , potassium , and vitamin B2 , vitamin B6 , vitamin B12 , vitamin C , and vitamin K .216 This is generally not a problem when taking tetracycline for two weeks or less. People taking tetracycline for longer than two weeks should ask their doctor about vitamin and mineral supplementation. Taking 500 mg vitamin C simultaneously with tetracycline was shown to increase blood levels of tetracycline in one study.217 The importance of this interaction is unknown.

    Taking large amounts of niacinamide, a form of vitamin B3 , can suppress inflammation in the body. According to numerous preliminary reports, niacinamide, given in combination with tetracycline or minocycline , may be effective against bullous pemphigoid, a benign, autoimmune blistering disease of the skin.218 , 219 , 220 , 221 , 222 , 223 , 224 Preliminary evidence also suggests a similar beneficial interaction may exist between tetracycline and niacinamide in the treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis .225 , 226

  • Theophylline

    Preliminary evidence indicates that theophylline can promote potassium and magnesium deficiency.227 , 228 Some doctors have noted a tendency for persons on theophylline to become deficient in these minerals. Therefore, supplementing with these minerals may be necessary during theophylline therapy. Consult with a doctor to make this determination.

  • Thioguanine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.229 , 230 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.231 , 232 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.233 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Thiotepa

    Cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.235 , 236 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.237 , 238 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.239 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Tobramycin

    Calcium , magnesium , and potassium depletion requiring prolonged replacement were reported in a child with tetany who had just completed a three-week course of i.v. tobramycin.240 The authors suggest this may have been due to kidney damage related to the drug. Seventeen patients with cancer developed calcium, magnesium, and potassium depletion after treatment with aminoglycoside antibiotics, including tobramycin.241 The authors suggested a possible potentiating action of tobramycin-induced mineral depletion by chemotherapy drugs, especially doxorubicin (Adriamycin®).

    Until more is known, people receiving i.v. tobramycin should ask their doctor about monitoring calcium, magnesium, and potassium levels and the possibility of mineral replacement.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Torsemide

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium. Loop diuretics may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,242 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.243 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including loop diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.244

    People taking loop diuretics should be monitored by their doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.245 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake is another way of supplementing potassium. Magnesium supplementation is typically 300–400 mg per day.

  • Trichlormethiazide

    Potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, cause the body to lose potassium; they may also cause cellular magnesium depletion,246 although this deficiency may not be reflected by a low blood level of magnesium.247 Magnesium loss induced by potassium-depleting diuretics can cause additional potassium loss. Until more is known, it has been suggested that people taking potassium-depleting diuretics, including thiazide diuretics, should supplement both potassium and magnesium.248

    People taking thiazide diuretics should be monitored by their prescribing doctor, who will prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Such supplementation is particularly critical before surgery in patients with a history of heart disease. In a preliminary study, people with low blood levels of potassium (in part related to diuretic use) had a higher incidence of serious problems resulting from surgery (including death) compared with those having normal potassium levels.249 A double-blind trial showed that thiazide diuretic use led to a reduction in blood levels of potassium in some participants. Those experiencing decreased potassium levels were also more likely to experience cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, aneurysm, and sudden cardiac death.250 Fruit is high in potassium, and increasing fruit intake (especially bananas) is another way of supplementing potassium.

    Magnesium supplementation for people taking thiazide diuretics is typically 300–600 mg per day, though higher amounts (over 800 mg per day) have been reported in a controlled study to reduce side effects of thiazides.251 Combining supplementation of both potassium and magnesium has been reported to correct abnormally low blood levels of potassium and also to protect against excessive loss of magnesium.252

  • Uracil Mustard

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.253 , 254 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.255 , 256 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.257 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Vinblastine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause kidney damage, resulting in depletion of calcium and phosphate.258

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.259 , 260 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.261 , 262 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.263 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

  • Vincristine

    The chemotherapy drug cisplatin may cause excessive loss of magnesium and potassium in the urine.264 , 265 Preliminary reports suggest that both potassium and magnesium supplementation may be necessary to increase low potassium levels.266 , 267 Severe magnesium deficiency caused by cisplatin therapy has been reported to result in seizures.268 Severe magnesium deficiency is a potentially dangerous medical condition that should only be treated by a doctor. People receiving cisplatin chemotherapy should ask their prescribing doctor to closely monitor magnesium and potassium status.

    Many chemotherapy drugs can cause diarrhea , lack of appetite, vomiting, and damage to the gastrointestinal tract. Recent anti-nausea prescription medications are often effective. Nonetheless, nutritional deficiencies still occur.269 People undergoing chemotherapy should talk to their doctor about whether supplementing with a multivitamin-mineral will protect them against deficiencies.

Reduce Side Effects

  • Ipecac

    In order to lose weight, some individuals who are overly zealous, as well as those with eating disorders, occasionally induce vomiting with ipecac. However, chronic abuse of ipecac can result in low blood levels of potassium,160 which might result in an irregular heart rhythm. Though avoidance of this behavior is the best form of prevention, individuals who abuse ipecac should supplement with potassium or high-potassium foods to prevent potassium deficiency.

  • Quinidine

    People taking potassium-depleting diuretics may develop low potassium and magnesium blood levels. Prolonged diarrhea and vomiting might also result in low blood potassium levels. People with low potassium or magnesium blood levels who take quinidine might develop serious drug side effects.213 Therefore, people taking quinidine should have their blood potassium and magnesium levels checked regularly and might need to supplement with both minerals, especially when taking potassium-depleting diuretics.

  • Thioridazine

    Some people taking thioridazine experience changes in the electrical activity of the heart, which sometimes improve with potassium supplementation.234 More research is needed to determine if people taking thioridazine might prevent heart problems by supplementing with potassium.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Support Medicine

  • none

Reduces Effectiveness

  • none

Potential Negative Interaction

  • Acebutolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,270 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.271 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (for example, bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Amlodipine-Benazepril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.272 , 273 , 274 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,275 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others),276 , 277 , 278 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (including noni juice) at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.279 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Amlodipine-Olmesartan
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as olmesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.280 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking olmesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Atenolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,281 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.282 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (for example, bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Azilsartan
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as azilsartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.283 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking azilsartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Azilsartan Med-Chlorthalidone
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as azilsartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.284 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking azilsartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Benazepril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.285 , 286 , 287 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,288 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),289 , 290 , 291 or large amounts of high-potassium foods at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.292 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Betaxolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,293 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.294 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Bisoprolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,295 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.296 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Candesartan
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as candesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.297Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking candesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Candesartan-Hydrochlorothiazid
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as candesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.298Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking candesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Captopril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.299 , 300 , 301 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,302 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),303 , 304 , 305 or large amounts of high-potassium foods at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.306 Therefore, individuals should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Carteolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,307 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.308 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

  • Cyclosporine

    Cyclosporine can cause excess retention of potassium, potentially leading to dangerous levels of the mineral in the blood (hyperkalemia).309 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit) should be avoided by people taking cyclosporine, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.

  • Enalapril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.310 , 311 , 312 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,313 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others),314 , 315 , 316 or large amounts of high-potassium foods at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.317 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Eprosartan
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as eprosartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.318 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking eprosartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Eprosartan-Hydrochlorothiazide
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as eprosartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.319 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking eprosartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Esmolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,320 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.321 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

  • Fosinopril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.322 , 323 , 324 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,325 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),326 , 327 , 328 or large amounts of high-potassium foods at the same time as taking ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.329 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

  • Indomethacin

    Indomethacin may cause elevated blood potassium levels in people with normal and abnormal kidney function.330 , 331 , 332 , 333 Until more is known, people taking indomethacin should not supplement potassium without medical supervision.

  • Irbesartan
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as irbesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.334 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking irbesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Irbesartan-Hydrochlorothiazide
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as irbesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.335 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking irbesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Ketorolac

    A 50-year-old male developed high blood levels of potassium following eight days of ketorolac treatment.336 Additional research is needed to determine whether taking ketorolac together with supplemental potassium might enhance this side effect. individuals taking oral ketorolac should probably avoid potassium supplements and salt substitutes until more information is available.

  • Labetalol

    Three kidney transplant patients developed hyperkalemia (high blood potassium levels), a potentially dangerous condition, following intravenous administration of labetalol.337 Additional research is needed to determine whether taking oral labetalol together with potassium supplements might also lead to elevated blood levels of potassium. However, some other beta-blockers (called “nonselective” beta-blockers) are known to decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,338 leading to hyperkalemia.339 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

  • Levobunolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,340 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.341 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

  • Nadolol

    People taking nadolol may experience significant increases in blood levels of potassium,342 though it is unknown whether supplementation with potassium might enhance this effect. People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of high-potassium foods, such as fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Nebivolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,343 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.344 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

  • Olmesartan
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as olmesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.345 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking olmesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Olmesartan-Amlodipine-Hctz
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as olmesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.346 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking olmesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Olmesartan-Hydrochlorothiazide
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as olmesartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.347 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking olmesartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Penbutolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,348 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.349 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

  • Perindopril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.350 , 351 , 352 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,353 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others),354 , 355 , 356 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (such as bananas and other fruit) at the same time as taking ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.357 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

  • Pindolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,358 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.359 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

  • Piroxicam

    An 85-year-old man developed higher than normal blood levels of potassium following several months of treatment with piroxicam.360 Until more is known, people taking piroxicam for long periods should have their blood checked regularly for high potassium levels and may need to avoid high potassium intake with the guidance of a health practitioner.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Propranolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,361 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.362 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Quinapril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.363 , 364 , 365 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,366 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),367 , 368 , 369 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (including noni juice) at the same time as taking ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.370 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Ramipril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.371 , 372 , 373 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,374 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),375 , 376 , 377 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (including noni juice) at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.378 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Sulfamethoxazole

    TMP/SMX has been reported to elevate potassium and other constituents of blood (creatinine and BUN).379 In particular, people with impaired kidney function should be closely monitored by their prescribing doctor for these changes. People taking sulfamethoxazole or TMP/SMX should talk with their prescribing doctor before taking any potassium supplements or potassium-containing products, such as No Salt, Salt Substitute, Lite Salt, and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit).

  • Telmisartan
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as telmisartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.380 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking telmisartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Telmisartan-Amlodipine
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as telmisartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.381 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking telmisartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Telmisartan-Hydrochlorothiazid
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as telmisartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.382 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking telmisartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Timolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,383 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.384 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Trandolapril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.385 , 386 , 387 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,388 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others),389 , 390 , 391 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (such as bananas and other fruit) at the same time as taking ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.392 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

  • Trimethoprim

    The combination drug trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) has been reported to elevate blood potassium and other constituents of blood (creatine and BUN).393 , 394 In particular, people with impaired kidney function should be closely monitored by their prescribing doctor for these changes. People taking trimethoprim or TMP/SMX should talk with the prescribing doctor before taking any potassium supplements or potassium-containing products, such as No Salt, Salt Substitute, Lite Salt, and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit).

  • Trimethoprim/ Sulfamethoxazole

    TMP/SMX has been reported to increase blood potassium to levels above the normal range in some patients, particularly those with impaired kidney function.395 People who have been prescribed TMP/SMX should ask their doctor whether they should avoid potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and high-potassium foods (primarily fruit).

  • Valsartan
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as valsartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.396 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking valsartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.
  • Valsartan-Hydrochlorothiazide
    Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs such as valsartan have caused significant increases in blood potassium levels.397 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking valsartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.

Explanation Required

  • Amiloride

    As a potassium-sparing drug, amiloride reduces urinary loss of potassium.398 This can cause potassium levels to build up in the body. People taking this drug should avoid use of potassium chloride–containing products, such as Morton Salt Substitute, No Salt, Lite Salt, and others. Even eating several pieces of fruit per day can sometimes cause problems for people taking potassium-sparing diuretics, due to the high potassium content of fruit.

    However, one medication (Moduretic) contains the combination of the potassium-sparing drug amiloride and the potassium-depleting drug hydrochlorothiazide. With the use of Moduretic, potassium excess and potassium depletion are both possible. People taking this combination drug should have their potassium levels monitored by a doctor to determine whether their potassium intake should be increased, reduced, or kept the same.

  • Celecoxib

    Controlled studies indicate that individuals on low-salt diets who take celecoxib retain sodium and potassium, which might result in higher than normal blood levels of these minerals.399 More research is needed to determine whether potassium supplements might produce unwanted side effects in people taking celecoxib. Until more information is available, people taking celecoxib should have their sodium and potassium blood levels monitored by their healthcare practitioner.

  • Digoxin

    Medical doctors prescribing digoxin also check for potassium depletion and prescribe potassium supplements if needed. Potassium transport from the blood into cells is impaired by digoxin.400 Although digoxin therapy does not usually lead to excess potassium in the blood (hyperkalemia), an overdose of digoxin could cause a potentially fatal hyperkalemia.401 People taking digoxin should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor. On the other hand, many people taking digoxin are also taking a diuretic; in these individuals, increased intake of potassium may be needed. These issues should be discussed with a doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Epinephrine

    Intravenous administration of epinephrine to human volunteers reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin C .402 Epinephrine and other “stress hormones” may reduce intracellular concentrations of potassium and magnesium .403 Although there are no clinical studies in humans, it seems reasonable that individuals using epinephrine should consume a diet high in vitamin C, potassium, and magnesium, or should consider supplementing with these nutrients.

  • Etodolac

    NSAIDs have caused kidney dysfunction and increased blood potassium levels, especially in older people.404 People taking NSAIDs, including etodolac, should not supplement potassium without consulting with their doctor.

  • Haloperidol

    Haloperidol may cause hyperkalemia (high blood levels of potassium) or hypokalemia (low blood levels of potassium).405 The incidence and severity of these changes remains unclear. Serum potassium can be measured by any doctor.

  • Heparin

    Heparin therapy may cause hyperkalemia (abnormally high potassium levels).406 , 407 Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others), and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit) should be avoided by persons on heparin therapy, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.

  • Ibuprofen

    Ibuprofen has caused kidney dysfunction and increased blood potassium levels, especially in older people.408 People taking ibuprofen should not supplement potassium without consulting with their doctor.

  • Lisinopril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.409 , 410 , 411 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,412 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt®, Morton Salt Substitute®, and others),413 , 414 , 415 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (including noni juice) at the same time as ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.416 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Losartan
    Losartan has caused significant increases in blood potassium levels. Potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others), and even high-potassium foods (including Noni juice) should be avoided by those taking losartan, unless directed otherwise by their doctor.417
  • Magnesium Hydroxide

    Individuals taking potassium-depleting diuretics and those who are otherwise at risk of developing potassium deficiency (such as people with chronic diarrhea or vomiting) may experience a fall in serum potassium levels if they take magnesium without taking additional potassium.418 This could lead to muscle cramps or, in individuals taking digoxin or digitalis, more serious problems such as cardiac arrhythmias . Individuals who have a history of potassium deficiency and those who are at risk of developing potassium deficiency, as well as people taking digoxin or digitalis, should consult a physician before taking magnesium-containing products.

  • Metoprolol

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,419 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.420 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Moexipril

    An uncommon yet potentially serious side effect of taking ACE inhibitors is increased blood potassium levels.421 , 422 , 423 This problem is more likely to occur in people with advanced kidney disease. Taking potassium supplements,424 potassium-containing salt substitutes (No Salt, Morton Salt Substitute, and others),425 , 426 , 427 or large amounts of high-potassium foods (such as bananas and other fruit) at the same time as taking ACE inhibitors could cause life-threatening problems.428 Therefore, people should consult their healthcare practitioner before supplementing additional potassium and should have their blood levels of potassium checked periodically while taking ACE inhibitors.

  • Nabumetone

    NSAIDs have caused kidney dysfunction and increased blood potassium levels, especially in older people.429 People taking NSAIDs, including nabumetone, should not supplement potassium without consulting with their doctor.

  • Naproxen

    Naproxen has caused kidney problems and increased blood potassium levels, especially in older people.430 , 431 People taking naproxen should not supplement potassium without consulting with their doctor.

  • Oxaprozin

    NSAIDs have caused kidney dysfunction and increased blood potassium levels, especially in older people.432 People taking NSAIDs, including oxaprozin, should not supplement potassium without consulting with their doctor.

  • Senna

    Overuse or misuse of laxatives, including senna, can cause water, sodium, and potassium depletion.433 To avoid depletion problems, people should limit laxative use, including senna, to one week or less.434

  • Sotalol

    People with prolonged diarrhea and vomiting, as well as those taking potassium-depleting diuretics, might develop low blood potassium levels. Individuals with low blood potassium levels who take sotalol have an increased risk of developing a serious heart arrhythmia and fainting. Therefore, people taking sotalol should have their blood potassium levels checked regularly and may need to supplement with potassium, especially when taking potassium-depleting diuretics.

    Some beta-adrenergic blockers (called “nonselective” beta blockers) decrease the uptake of potassium from the blood into the cells,435 leading to excess potassium in the blood, a potentially dangerous condition known as hyperkalemia.436 People taking beta-blockers should therefore avoid taking potassium supplements, or eating large quantities of fruit (e.g., bananas), unless directed to do so by their doctor.

  • Spironolactone

    As a potassium-sparing diuretic, spironolactone reduces urinary loss of potassium, which can lead to elevated potassium levels.437 People taking spironolactone should avoid potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (Morton Salt Substitute, No Salt, Lite Salt, and others), and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit). Doctors should monitor potassium blood levels in patients taking spironolactone to prevent problems associated with elevated potassium levels.

    However, one medication (Aldactazide) contains the combination of the potassium-sparing drug spironolactone and the potassium-depleting drug hydrochlorothiazide. With the use of Aldactazide, potassium excess and potassium depletion are both possible. People taking this combination drug should have their potassium levels monitored by a doctor to determine whether their potassium intake should be increased, reduced, or kept the same.

  • Triamterene

    As a potassium-sparing drug, triamterene reduces urinary loss of potassium, which can lead to elevated potassium levels.438 People taking triamterene should avoid potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes (Morton Salt Substitute, No Salt, Lite Salt, and others) and even high-potassium foods (primarily fruit). Doctors should monitor potassium blood levels in patients taking triamterene to prevent problems associated with elevated potassium levels.

    However, some medications (for example, Dyazide, Maxzide) contain the combination of the potassium-sparing drug triamterene and the potassium-depleting drug hydrochlorothiazide. With the use of these combination medications, potassium excess and potassium depletion are both possible. People taking these drugs should have their potassium levels monitored by a doctor to determine whether their potassium intake should be increased, reduced, or kept the same.

The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Side Effects

High potassium intake (several hundred milligrams at one time in tablet form) can produce stomach irritation. People using potassium-sparing drugs should avoid using potassium chloride-containing products, such as Morton Salt Substitute, No Salt, Lite Salt, and others and should not take potassium supplements, except under the supervision of a doctor. Even eating several pieces of fruit each day can sometimes cause problems for people taking potassium-sparing drugs, due to the high potassium content of fruit.

References

1. Whelton PK, He J, Cutler JA, et al. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA 1997;277:1624-32.

2. Ettinger B, Pak CY, Citron JT, et al. Potassium-magnesium citrate is an effective prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1997;158:2069-73.

3. Pak CY. Medical prevention of renal stone disease. Nephron 1999;81(Suppl 1):60-5 [review].

4. Lumme JA, Jounela AJ. The effect of potassium and potassium plus magnesium supplementation on ventricular extrasystoles in mild hypertensives treated with hydrochlorothiazide. Int J Cardiol 1989;25:93-8.

5. Tsuji H, Venditti FJ, Evans JC, et al. The associations of levels of serum potassium and magnesium with ventricular premature complexes (the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 1994;74:232-5.

6. Shaw DL, Chesney MA, Tullis IF, Agersborg HPK. Management of fatigue: a physiologic approach. Am J Med Sci 1962;243:758-69.

7. Crescente FJ. Treatment of fatigue in a surgical practice. J Abdom Surg 1962;4:73.

8. Hicks J. Treatment of fatigue in general practice: a double-blind study. Clin Med 1964;Jan:85-90.

9. Formica PE. The housewife syndrome: treatment with the potassium and magnesium salts of aspartic acid. Curr Ther Res 1962;Mar:98-106.

10. Bashir Y, Sneddon JF, Staunton A, et al. Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:1156-62.

11. Packer M, Gottlieb SS, Kessler PD. Hormone-electrolyte interactions in the pathogenesis of lethal cardiac arrhythmias in patients with congestive heart failure. Am J Med 1986;80 (Suppl 4A):23-9.

12. Chang HY, Hu YW, Yue CSJ, et al. Effect of potassium-enriched salt on cardiovascular mortality and medical expenses of elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:1289-96.

13. Takacs BE. Potassium: A new treatment for premenstrual syndrome. J Orthomolec Med 1998;13:215-22.

14. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, et al. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 1998;98:1198-204.

15. Sasaki S, Zhang XH, Kesteloot H. Dietary sodium, potassium, saturated fat, alcohol, and stroke mortality. Stroke 1995;26:783-9.

16. Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E. Dietary potassium and stroke-associated mortality. A 12-year prospective population study. N Engl J Med 1987;316:235-40.

17. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, et al. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 1998;98:1198-204.

18. Fang J, Madhavan S, Alderman MH. Dietary Potassium Intake and Stroke Mortality. Stroke 2000;31:1532-7.

19. Yamori Y, Nara Y, Mizushima S, et al. Nutritional factors for stroke and major cardiovascular diseases: international epidemiological comparison of dietary prevention. Health Rep 1994;6:22-7.

20. Stamler J, Caggiula AW, Grandits GA. Relation of body mass and alcohol, nutrient, fiber, and caffeine intakes to blood pressure in the special intervention and usual care groups in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:338S-65S.

21. Suter PM. The effects of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber on risk of stroke. Nutr Rev 1999;57:84-8.

22. Phillips PJ, Vedig AE, Jones PL, et al. Metabolic and cardiovascular side effects of the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists salbutamol and rimiterol. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1980;9:483-91.

23. Edner M, Jogestrand T. Oral salbutamol decreases serum digoxin concentration. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1990;38:195-7.

24. Spector SL. Adverse reactions associated with parenteral beta agonists: serum potassium changes. N Engl Reg Allergy Proc 1987;8:317-22.

25. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

26. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

27. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

28. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

29. Franse LV, Pahor M, Di Bari M, et al. Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. Hypertension 2000;35:1025-30.

30. Ruml LA, Gonzalez G, Taylor R, et al. Effect of varying doses of potassium-magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Ther 1999;6:45-50.

31. Ruml LA, Pak CYO. Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:107-13.

32. Fleming BJ, Genuth SM, Gould AB, Kaminokowski MD. Laxative induced hypokalemia, sodium depletion, and hyperreninemia. Effects of potassium and sodium replacement on the rennin angiotensin system. Ann Intern Med 1975;83:60-2.

33. Threlkeld DS, ed. Gastrointestinal Drugs, Laxatives. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, May 1991, 319a.

34. Threlkeld DS, ed. Gastrointestinal Drugs, Laxatives. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, May 1991, 319a.

35. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

36. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

37. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

38. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

39. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

40. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

41. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

42. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

43. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

44. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

45. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

46. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

47. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

48. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

49. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

50. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

51. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

52. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

53. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

54. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

55. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

56. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

57. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

58. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

59. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

60. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

61. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

62. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

63. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

64. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

65. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

66. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

67. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

68. Franse LV, Pahor M, Di Bari M, et al. Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. Hypertension 2000;35:1025-30.

69. Ruml LA, Gonzalez G, Taylor R, et al. Effect of varying doses of potassium-magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Ther 1999;6:45-50.

70. Ruml LA, Pak CYO. Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:107-13.

71. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

72. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

73. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

74. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

75. Franse LV, Pahor M, Di Bari M, et al. Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. Hypertension 2000;35:1025-30.

76. Ruml LA, Gonzalez G, Taylor R, et al. Effect of varying doses of potassium-magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Ther 1999;6:45-50.

77. Ruml LA, Pak CYO. Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:107-13.

78. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

79. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

80. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

81. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

82. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

83. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

84. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

85. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

86. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

87. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

88. Werbach MR. Foundations of Nutritional Medicine. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, 1997, 223-4 [review].

89. Thelkeld DS, ed. Hormones, Adrenal Cortical Steroids, Glucocorticoids. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Apr 1991, 128b.

90. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

91. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

92. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

93. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

94. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

95. Thelkeld DS, ed. Hormones, Adrenal Cortical Steroids, Glucocorticoids. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Apr 1991, 128b.

96. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

97. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

98. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

99. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

100. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

101. De Maria D, Falchi AM, Venturino P. Adjuvant radiotherapy of the pelvis with or without reduced glutathione: a randomized trial in patients operated on for endometrial cancer. Tumori 1992;78:374-6.

102. Moriarty KJ, Kelly MJ, Beetham R, Clark ML. Studies on the mechanism of action of dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate in the human jejunum. Gut 1985;26:1008-13.

103. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

104. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

105. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

106. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

107. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

108. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

109. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

110. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

111. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

112. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

113. Hulthen UL, Katzman PL. Renal effects of acute and long-term treatment with felodipine in essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1988;6:231-7.

114. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

115. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

116. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

117. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

118. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

119. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

120. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

121. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

122. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

123. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

124. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

125. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

126. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

127. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

128. Kes P, Reiner Z. Symptomatic hypomagnesemia associated with gentamicin therapy. Magnes Trace Elem 1990;9:54-60.

129. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

130. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

131. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

132. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

133. Franse LV, Pahor M, Di Bari M, et al. Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. Hypertension 2000;35:1025-30.

134. Ruml LA, Gonzalez G, Taylor R, et al. Effect of varying doses of potassium-magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Ther 1999;6:45-50.

135. Ruml LA, Pak CYO. Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:107-13.

136. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

137. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

138. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

139. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

140. Franse LV, Pahor M, Di Bari M, et al. Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. Hypertension 2000;35:1025-30.

141. Ruml LA, Gonzalez G, Taylor R, et al. Effect of varying doses of potassium-magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Ther 1999;6:45-50.

142. Ruml LA, Pak CYO. Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:107-13.

143. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

144. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

145. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

146. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

147. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

148. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

149. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

150. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

151. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

152. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

153. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

154. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

155. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

156. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

157. Franse LV, Pahor M, Di Bari M, et al. Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. Hypertension 2000;35:1025-30.

158. Ruml LA, Gonzalez G, Taylor R, et al. Effect of varying doses of potassium-magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Ther 1999;6:45-50.

159. Ruml LA, Pak CYO. Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:107-13.

160. Sansone RA. Complications of hazardous weight-loss methods. Am Fam Physician 1984;30:141-6 [review].

161. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

162. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

163. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

164. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

165. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

166. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

167. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

168. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

169. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

170. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

171. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

172. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

173. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

174. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

175. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

176. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

177. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

178. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

179. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

180. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

181. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

182. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

183. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

184. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

185. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

186. Dreizen S, McCredie KB, Keating MJ, Andersson BS. Nutritional deficiencies in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Postgrad Med 1990;87(1):163-70.

187. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

188. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

189. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

190. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

191. Franse LV, Pahor M, Di Bari M, et al. Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. Hypertension 2000;35:1025-30.

192. Ruml LA, Gonzalez G, Taylor R, et al. Effect of varying doses of potassium-magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Ther 1999;6:45-50.

193. Ruml LA, Pak CYO. Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:107-13.

194. Thelkeld DS, ed. Hormones, Adrenal Cortical Steroids, Glucocorticoids. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Apr 1991, 128b.

195. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 176.

196. Clark JH, Russell GJ, Fitzgerald JF, Nagamori KE. Serum beta-carotene, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol levels during mineral oil therapy for constipation. Am J Dis Child 1987;141:1210-2.

197. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

198. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

199. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

200. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

201. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

202. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

203. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

204. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

205. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

206. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

207. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

208. Franse LV, Pahor M, Di Bari M, et al. Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. Hypertension 2000;35:1025-30.

209. Ruml LA, Gonzalez G, Taylor R, et al. Effect of varying doses of potassium-magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Ther 1999;6:45-50.

210. Ruml LA, Pak CYO. Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:107-13.

211. Thelkeld DS, ed. Hormones, Adrenal Cortical Steroids, Glucocorticoids. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Apr 1991, 128b.

212. Thelkeld DS, ed. Hormones, Adrenal Cortical Steroids, Glucocorticoids. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Apr 1991, 128b.

213. Roden DM, Iansmith DH. Effects of low potassium or magnesium concentrations on isolated cardiac tissue. Am J Med 1987;82:18-23.

214. Smith MJH, Smith PK, eds. The Salicylates: A Critical Bibliographic Review. New York: Interscience, 1966.

215. Nesher G, Zimran A, Hershko C. Hyperkalemia associated with sulindac therapy. J Rheumatol 1986;13:1084-5.

216. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 256-8.

217. Freinberg N, Lite T. Adjunctive ascorbic acid administration in antibiotic therapy. J Dent Res 1957;36:260-2.

218. Yomoda M, Komai A, Hasimoto T. Sublamina densa-type linear IgA bullous dermatosis successfully treated with oral tetracycline and niacinamide. Br J Dermatol 1999;141:608-9.

219. Dragan L, Eng AM, Lam S, Persson T. Tetracycline and niacinamide: treatment alternatives in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Cutis 1999;63:181-3.

220. Berk MA, Lorincz AL. The treatment of bullous pemphigoid with tetracycline and niacinamide. A preliminary report. Arch Dermatol 1986;122:670-4.

221. Kawahara Y, Hashimoto T, Ohata K, Nishikawa T. Eleven cases of bullous pemphigoid treated with combination of minocycline and nicotinamide. Eur J Dermatol 1996;6:427-9.

222. Reiche L, Wojnarowska F, Mallon E. Combination therapy with nicotinamide and tetracyclines for cicatricial pemphigoid; further support for its efficacy. Clin Exp Dermatol 1998;23:254-7.

223. Peoples D, Fivenson DP. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis: successful treatment with tetracycline and nicotinamide. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26:498-9.

224. Chaffins ML, Collison D, Fivenson DP. Treatment of pemphigus and linear IgA dermatosis with nicotinamide and tetracycline: a review of 13 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;28:998-1000.

225. Shah SA, Ormerod AD. Dermatitis herpetiformis effectively treated with heparin, tetracycline and nicotinamide. Clin Exp Dermatol 2000;25:204-5.

226. Zemtsov A, Neldner KH. Successful treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis with tetracycline and nicotinamide in a patient unable to tolerate dapsone. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;28:505-6.

227. Rayssiguier Y. Hypomagnesemia resulting from adrenaline infusion in ewes: Its relation to lipolysis. Horm Metab Res 1977;9:309-14.

228. Smith SR, Gove I, Kendall MJ. Beta agonists and potassium. Lancet 1985;1:1394.

229. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

230. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

231. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

232. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

233. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

234. Sydney MA. Ventricular arrhythmias associated with use of thioridazine hydrochloride in alcohol withdrawal. Br Med J 1973;4:467.

235. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

236. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

237. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

238. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

239. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

240. Slayton W, Anstine D, Lakhdir F, et al. Tetany in a child with AIDS receiving intravenous tobramycin. South Med J 1996;89:1108-10.

241. Keating MJ, Sethi MR, Bodey GP, Samaan NA. Hypocalcemia with hypoparathyroidism and renal tubular dysfunction associated with aminoglycoside therapy. Cancer 1977;39:1410-4.

242. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

243. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

244. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

245. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

246. Martin B, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesiumia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1768-71.

247. Kroenke K, Wood DR, Hanley JF. The value of serum magnesium determination in hypertensive patients receiving diuretics. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1553-6.

248. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

249. Wahr JA, Parks R, Boisvert D, et al. Preoperative serum potassium levels and perioperative outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. JAMA 1999;281:2203-10.

250. Franse LV, Pahor M, Di Bari M, et al. Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. Hypertension 2000;35:1025-30.

251. Ruml LA, Gonzalez G, Taylor R, et al. Effect of varying doses of potassium-magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Ther 1999;6:45-50.

252. Ruml LA, Pak CYO. Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:107-13.

253. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

254. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

255. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

256. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

257. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

258. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

259. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

260. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

261. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

262. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

263. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

264. Buckley JE, Clark VL, Meyer TJ, Pearlman NW. Hypomagnesemia after cisplatin combination chemotherapy. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2347.

265. Threlkeld DS, ed. Antineoplastics, alkylating agents, cisplatin (CDDP). In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Feb 1999, 652a-2d.

266. Rodriguez M, Solanki DL, Whang R. Refractory potassium repletion due to Cisplatin-induced magnesium depletion. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:2592-4.

267. Whang R, Whang DD, Ryan MP. Refractory potassium repletion. A consequence of magnesium deficiency. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:40-5.

268. van de Loosdrecht AA, Gietema JA, van der Graaf WT. Seizures in a patient with disseminated testicular cancer due to cisplatin-induced hypomagnesaemia. Acta Oncol 2000;39:239-40.

269. Dreizen S, McCredie KB, Keating MJ, Andersson BS. Nutritional deficiencies in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Postgrad Med 1990;87(1):163-70.

270. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

271. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

272. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

273. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

274. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

275. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

276. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

277. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

278. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

279. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

280. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

281. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

282. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

283. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

284. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

285. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

286. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

287. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

288. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

289. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

290. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

291. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

292. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

293. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

294. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

295. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

296. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

297. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

298. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

299. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

300. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

301. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

302. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

303. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

304. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

305. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

306. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

307. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

308. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

309. Perazella MA. Drug-induced hyperkalemia: Old culprits and new offenders. Am J Med 2000;109:307-14 [review].

310. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

311. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

312. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

313. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

314. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

315. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

316. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

317. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

318. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

319. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

320. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

321. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

322. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

323. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

324. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

325. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

326. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

327. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

328. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

329. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

330. Tan SY, Shapiro R, Franco R, et al. Indomethacin-induced prostaglandin inhibition with hyper kalemia. Ann Intern Med 1979;90:783-5.

331. Goldszer RC, Coodley EL, Rosner MJ, et al. Hyperkalemia associated with indomethacin. Arch Intern Med 1981;141:802-4.

332. Threlkeld DS, ed. Central Nervous System Drugs, Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Mar 1993, 252-a.

333. Perazella MA. Drug-induced hyperkalemia: Old culprits and new offenders. Am J Med 2000;109:307-14 [review].

334. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

335. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

336. Kelley M, Bastani B. Ketorolac-induced acute renal failure and hyperkalemia. Clin Nephrol 1995;44:276-7 [letter].

337. Arthur S, Greenberg A. Hyperkalemia associated with intravenous labetalol therapy for acute hypertension in renal transplant recipients. Clin Nephrol 1990;33:269-71.

338. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

339. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

340. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

341. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

342. Wheeldon NM, McDevitt DG, Lipworth BJ. The effects of lower than conventional doses of oral nadolol on relative beta 1/beta 2-adrenoceptor blockade. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1994;38:103-8.

343. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

344. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

345. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

346. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

347. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

348. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

349. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

350. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

351. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

352. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

353. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

354. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

355. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

356. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

357. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

358. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

359. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

360. Miller KP, Lazar EJ, Fotino S. Severe hyperkalemia during piroxicam therapy. Arch Int Med 1984;144:2414-5.

361. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

362. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

363. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

364. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

365. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

366. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

367. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

368. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

369. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

370. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

371. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

372. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

373. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

374. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

375. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

376. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

377. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

378. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

379. Alappan R, Perazella MA, Buller GK. Hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:316-20.

380. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

381. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

382. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

383. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

384. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

385. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

386. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

387. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

388. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

389. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

390. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

391. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

392. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

393. Alappan R, Perazella MA, Buller GK. Hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:316-20.

394. Perazella MA. Drug-induced hyperkalemia: Old culprits and new offenders. Am J Med 2000;109:307-14 [review].

395. Alappan R, Perazella MA, Buller GK. Hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:316-20.

396. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

397. Park IW, Sheen SS, Yoon D, et al et al. Onset time of hyperkalaemia after angiotensin receptor blocker initiation: when should we start serum potassium monitoring? J Clin Pharm Ther 2014;39:61–8

398. Ramsay LE, Hettiarachchi J, Fraser R, Morton JJ. Amiloride, spironolactone, and potassium chloride in thiazide-treated hypertensive patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1980;27:533-43.

399. Rossat J, Maillard M, Nussberger J. Renal effects of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in normotensive salt-depleted subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;66:76-84.

400. Lown B, Black H, Moore FD. Digitalis, electrolytes and the surgical patient. Am J Cardiol 1960;6:309-37.

401. Smith TW, Willerson JT. Suicidal and accidental digoxin ingestion. Report of five cases with serum digoxin level correlations. Circulation 1971;44:29-36.

402. Cox BD, Clarkson AR, Whichelow MJ, et al. Effect of adrenaline on plasma vitamin C levels in normal subjects. Horm Metab Res 1974;6:234-7.

403. Raab W. Cardiotoxic effects of emotional, socioeconomic, and environmental stresses. In Myocardiology, vol I, ed. E Bajusz, G Rona. Baltimore: University Park Press 1970, 707-13.

404. Bailie GR. Acute renal failure. In Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs, 6th ed. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, 1995, 29-33.

405. Threlkeld DS, ed. Central Nervous System Drugs, Antipsychotic Agents. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, May 1998, 266k-6m.

406. Threlkeld DS, ed. Blood Modifiers, Anticoagulants, Heparin. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, Jun 1997, 87a-7f.

407. Perazella MA. Drug-induced hyperkalemia: Old culprits and new offenders. Am J Med 2000;109:307-14 [review].

408. Bailie GR. Acute renal failure. In Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs, 6th ed. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, 1995, 29-33.

409. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

410. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

411. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

412. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

413. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

414. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

415. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

416. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

417. Noni. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on September 13, 2011

418. Dyckner T, Wester PO. Ventricular extrasystoles and intracellular electrolytes before and after potassium and magnesium infusions in patients on diuretic treatment. Am Heart J 1979;97:12-8.

419. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

420. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

421. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

422. Rush JE, Merrill DD. The Safety and tolerability of lisinopril in clinical trials. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1987;9(Suppl 3):S99-107.

423. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

424. Burnakis TG, Mioduch HJ. Combined therapy with captopril and potassium supplementation. A potential for hyperkalemia. Arch Intern Med 1984;144:2371-2.

425. Burnakis TG. Captopril and increased serum potassium levels. JAMA 1984;252:1682-3 [letter].

426. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R. Severe hyperkalemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction. J Hum Hypertens 1999;13:717-20.

427. Sifton DW, ed. Physicians' Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 2000, 1965-8.

428. Stoltz ML. Severe hyperkalemia during very-low-calorie diets and angiotensin converting enzyme use. JAMA 1990;264:2737-8 [letter].

429. Bailie GR. Acute renal failure. In Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs, 6th ed. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, 1995, 29-33.

430. Bailie GR. Acute renal failure. In Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs, 6th ed. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, 1995, 29-33.

431. Perazella MA. Drug-induced hyperkalemia: Old culprits and new offenders. Am J Med 2000;109:307-14 [review].

432. Bailie GR. Acute renal failure. In Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs, 6th ed. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics, 1995, 29-33.

433. Threlkeld DS, ed. Gastrointestinal Drugs, Laxatives. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, May 1991, 318a-9.

434. Threlkeld DS, ed. Gastrointestinal Drugs, Laxatives. In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, May 1991, 318a-9.

435. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med 1980;302:431-4.

436. Lundborg P. The effect of adrenergic blockade on potassium concentrations in different conditions. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1983;672:121-6 [review].

437. Ramsay LE, Hettiarachchi J, Fraser R, Morton JJ. Amiloride, spironolactone, and potassium chloride in thiazide-treated hypertensive patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1980;27:533-43.

438. Jackson PR, Ramsay LE, Wakefield V. Relative potency of spironolactone, triamterene and potassium chloride in thiazide-induced hypokalaemia. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1982;14:257-63.

This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise, Incorporated disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use. How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.

Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.