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Search Health Information    Acetyl-L-Carnitine

Acetyl-L-Carnitine

Uses

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
3 Stars
Age-Related Cognitive Decline
1,500 mg daily
Learn More

Several clinical trials suggest that acetyl-L-carnitine delays onset of ARCD and improves overall cognitive function in the elderly. In a controlled clinical trial, acetyl-L-carnitine was given to elderly people with mild cognitive impairment. After 45 days of acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation at 1,500 mg per day, significant improvements in cognitive function (especially memory) were observed.1 Another large trial of acetyl-L-carnitine for mild cognitive impairment in the elderly found that 1,500 mg per day for 90 days significantly improved memory, mood, and responses to stress. The favorable effects persisted at least 30 days after treatment was discontinued.2 Controlled3 , 4 , 5 and uncontrolled6 clinical trials on acetyl-L-carnitine corroborate these findings.

2 Stars
Alzheimer’s Disease
1 gram taken three times per day
Learn More

Several clinical trials have found that acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation delays the progression of Alzheimer’s disease,7 improves memory,8 , 9 , 10 and enhances overall performance in some people with Alzheimer’s disease.11 , 12 However, in one double-blind trial, people who received acetyl-L-carnitine (1 gram three times per day) deteriorated at the same rate as those given a placebo.13 Overall, however, most short-term studies have shown clinical benefits, and most long-term studies (one year) have shown a reduction in the rate of deterioration.14 A typical supplemental amount is 1 gram taken three times per day.

2 Stars
Depression
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Acetyl-L-carnitine may be effective for depression experienced by the elderly. A preliminary trial found that acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation was effective at relieving depression in a group of elderly people, particularly those showing more serious clinical symptoms.15 These results were confirmed in another similar clinical trial.16 In that trial, participants received either 500 mg three times a day of acetyl-L-carnitine or a matching placebo. Those receiving acetyl-L-carnitine experienced significantly reduced symptoms of depression compared to those receiving placebo. At least two other clinical studies of acetyl-L-carnitine for depression in the elderly have reported similar results.17 , 18 The amount typically used is 500 mg three times daily, although one trial used twice that amount.

2 Stars
Down’s Syndrome
500 mg three times per day
Learn More

Acetyl-L-carnitine is a compound that occurs naturally in the brain and plays a role in the normal functioning of the nervous system. In a preliminary trial, patients with Down’s syndrome were given 500 mg of L-acetyl-carnitine three times daily for 90 days and were observed to improve in visual memory and attention. Similar improvement was not seen in untreated patients, nor in patients with mental deficiency unrelated to Down’s syndrome who were also given L-acetyl-carnitine.19 More research into the effects of L-acetyl-carnitine in people with Down’s syndrome is needed.

2 Stars
Erectile Dysfunction (L-Carnitine)
2 grams of each daily
Learn More

In a double-blind study, supplementing with the combination of propionyl-L-carnitine (a form of L-carnitine ) and acetyl-L-carnitine (2 grams of each per day) for six months significantly improved erectile function in elderly men with erectile dysfunction associated with low testosterone levels. Propionyl-L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine were significantly more effective than testosterone treatment.20

2 Stars
Fibromyalgia
1,500 mg daily for ten weeks
Learn More

In a double-blind trial, supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,500 mg per day for ten weeks was significantly more effective than a placebo in improving musculoskeletal pain, depression, and general health in people with fibromyalgia.21

2 Stars
Liver Cirrhosis
2 grams twice a day for 3 months
Learn More
In double-blind trials, supplementing with acety-L-carnitine (2 grams twice a day for three months) improved fatigue and various measures of mental and neurological function in people with impaired function (minimal hepatic encephalopathy) due to cirrhosis.22 , 23
2 Stars
Macular Degeneration (Coenzyme Q10, Fish Oil)
Follow label directions
Learn More

In a double-blind study, supplementation with a proprietary blend of acetyl-L-carnitine , omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil , and coenzyme Q10 for 12 months resulted in an improvement in both visual function and in objective findings on eye examination (a decrease in the drusen-covered area on the retina).24

2 Stars
Type 1 Diabetes and Diabetic Neuropathy
500 to 1,000 mg three times per day
Learn More
In a double-blind study of people with diabetic nerve damage (neuropathy), supplementing with acetyl-L-carnitine was significantly more effective than a placebo in improving subjective symptoms of neuropathy and objective measures of nerve function.25 People who received 1,000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine three times per day tended to fare better than those who received 500 mg three times per day.
2 Stars
Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Neuropathy
500 to 1,000 mg three times daily
Learn More

In a double-blind study of people with diabetic neuropathy, supplementing with acetyl-L-carnitine was significantly more effective than a placebo in improving subjective symptoms of neuropathy and objective measures of nerve function.26 People who received 1,000 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine three times per day tended to fare better than those who received 500 mg three times per day.

1 Star
Amenorrhea
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

Acetyl-L-carnitine is an amino acid that may have effects on brain chemicals and hormones that control female reproductive hormones. In a preliminary trial, 2 grams daily of acetyl-L-carnitine was given to amenorrheic women who had either low or normal blood levels of female hormones. Hormone levels improved in the women with low initial levels, and half of all the women resumed menstruating within three to six months after beginning supplementation.27 Controlled trials are needed to confirm these promising results.

1 Star
Male Infertility
Refer to label instructions
Learn More

L-carnitine is a substance made in the body and also found in supplements and some foods (such as meat). It appears to be necessary for normal functioning of sperm cells. In preliminary studies, supplementing with 3–4 grams per day for four months helped to normalize sperm motility in men with low sperm quality.28 , 29 While the majority of clinical trials have used L-carnitine, one preliminary trial found that acetylcarnitine (4 grams per day) may also prove useful for treatment of male infertility caused by low quantities of immobile sperm.30

How It Works

How to Use It

Most research involving acetyl-L-carnitine has used 500 mg three times per day, though some research has used double this amount.31

Where to Find It

Acetyl-L-carnitine is a molecule that occurs naturally in the brain, liver, and kidney. It is also available as a dietary supplement.

Possible Deficiencies

Acetyl-L-carnitine levels may decrease with advancing age. However, because it is not an essential nutrient, true deficiencies do not occur.

Interactions

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

At the time of writing, there were no well-known supplement or food interactions with this supplement.

Interactions with Medicines

Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

Replenish Depleted Nutrients

  • none

Reduce Side Effects

  • Busulfan

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.32

  • Capecitabine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.33

  • Carboplatin

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.34

  • Carmustine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.35

  • Chlorambucil

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.36

  • Cisplatin

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by cisplatin.37

  • Cladribine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.38

  • Cytarabine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.39

  • Erlotinib

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.40

  • Etoposide

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.41

  • Floxuridine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.42

  • Fludarabine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.43

  • Hydroxyurea

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.44

  • Ifosfamide

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.45

  • Irinotecan

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.46

  • Lomustine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.47

  • Mechlorethamine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.48

  • Melphalan

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.49

  • Mercaptopurine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.50

  • Methotrexate

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.51

  • Paclitaxel

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks, has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by paclitaxel.52

  • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.53

  • Thioguanine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.54

  • Thiotepa

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by cisplatin.55

  • Uracil Mustard

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.56

  • Vinblastine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.57

  • Vincristine

    Acetyl-L-carnitine in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day for eight weeks has been shown to improve nerve damage (neuropathy) caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.58

Support Medicine

  • none

Reduces Effectiveness

  • none

Potential Negative Interaction

  • none

Explanation Required

  • Didanosine

    Severe peripheral neuropathy (painful sensations due to nerve damage in the hands and feet) often develops in people taking didanosine or other drugs in its class. People with peripheral neuropathy who were taking one of these drugs were found to be deficient in acetyl-L-carnitine.59 In a preliminary trial, supplementation with 1,500 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine twice a day resulted in improvement in the neuropathy after six months in people taking didanosine or related drugs.60 Similar benefits were seen in another study that used the same amount of acetyl-L-carnitine.61

  • Stavudine

    Severe peripheral neuropathy (painful sensations due to nerve damage in the hands and feet) often develops in people taking stavudine or other drugs in its class. People with peripheral neuropathy who were taking one of these drugs were found to be deficient in acetyl-L-carnitine.62 In a preliminary trial, supplementing with 1,500 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine twice a day resulted in improvement in the neuropathy after six months in people taking stavudine or related drugs.63 Similar benefits were seen in another study that used the same amount of acetyl-L-carnitine.64

The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Side Effects

Side effects from taking acetyl-L-carnitine are uncommon, although skin rash, increased appetite, nausea, vomiting, agitation, and body odor have been reported in people taking acetyl-L-carnitine.65 , 66

References

1. Cipolli C, Chiari G. [Effects of L-acetylcarnitine on mental deterioration in the aged: initial results.] Clin Ter 1990;132(6 Suppl):479–510 [in Italian].

2. Salvioli G, Neri M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1994;20(4):169–76.

3. Genazzani E. [A controlled clinical study on the efficacy of L-acetylcarnitine in the treatment of mild to moderate mental deterioration in the aged. Conclusions.] Clin Ter 1990;132(6 Suppl):511–2.

4. Garzya G, Corallo D, Fiore A, et al. Evaluation of the effects of L-acetylcarnitine on senile patients suffering from depression. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16(2):101–6.

5. Bonavita E. Study of the efficacy and tolerability of L-acetylcarnitine therapy in the senile brain. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1986;24(9):511–6.

6. Passeri M, Iannuccelli M, Ciotti G, et al. Mental impairment in aging: selection of patients, methods of evaluation and therapeutic possibilities of acetyl-L-carnitine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1988;8(5):367–76.

7. Pettegrew JW, Klunk WE, Panchalingam K, et al. Clinical and neurochemical effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 1995;16:1–4.

8. Salvioli G, Neri M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1994;20:169–76.

9. Rai G, Wright G, Scott L, et al. Double-blind, placebo controlled study of acetyl-l-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer’s dementia. Curr Med Res Opin 1990;11:638–47.

10. Sano M, Bell K, Cote L, et al. Double-blind parallel design pilot study of acetyl levocarnitine in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol 1992;49:1137–41.

11. Cucinotta D et al. Multicenter clinical placebo-controlled study with acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) in the treatment of mildly demented elderly patients. Drug Development Res 1988;14:213–6.

12. Bonavita E. Study of the efficacy and tolerability of L-acetylcarnitine therapy in the senile brain. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1986;24:511–6.

13. Thal LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, et al. A 1-year multi-center placebo-controlled study of aceyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1996;47:705–11.

14. Calvani M, Carta A, Caruso G, et al. Action of acetyl-L-carnitine in neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Ann NY Acad Sci 1992;663:483–6.

15. Tempesta E, Casella L, Pirrongelli C, et al. L-acetylcarnitine in depressed elderly subjects. A cross-over study vs placebo. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13:417–23.

16. Garzya G, Corallo D, Fiore A, et al. Evaluation of the effects of L-acetylcarnitine on senile patients suffering from depression. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16:101–6.

17. Guarnaschelli C, Fugazza G, Pistarini C. Pathological brain ageing: evaluation of the efficacy of a pharmacological aid. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1988;14:715–8.

18. Bella R, Biondi R, Raffaele R, Pennisi G. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on geriatric patients suffering from dysthymic disorders. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1990;10:355–60.

19. De Falco FA, D’Angelo E, Grimaldi G, et al. Effect of the chronic treatment with L-acetylcarnitine in Down’s syndrome. Clin Ter 1994;144:123–7 [in Italian].

20. Cavallini G, Caracciolo S, Vitali G, et al. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology2004;63:641–6.

21. Rossini M, Di Munno O, Valentini G, et al. Double-blind, multicenter trial comparing acetyl l-carnitine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007;25:182–8.

22. Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, Cristaldi E, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Dig Dis Sci 2008;53:3018–25.

23. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Giordano M, et al. Oral acetyl-L-carnitine therapy reduces fatigue in overt hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:799–808

24. Feher J, Kovacs B, Kovacs I, et al. Improvement of visual functions and fundus alterations in early age-related macular degeneration treated with a combination of acetyl-L-carnitine, n-3 fatty acids, and coenzyme Q10. Ophthalmologica2005;219:154–66.

25. Sima AA, Calvani M, Mehra M, Amato A. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves pain, nerve regeneration, and vibratory perception in patients with chronic diabetic neuropathy: an analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials.Diabetes Care 2005;28:89–94.

26. Sima AA, Calvani M, Mehra M, Amato A. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves pain, nerve regeneration, and vibratory perception in patients with chronic diabetic neuropathy: an analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2005;28:89–94.

27. Genazzani AD, Petraglia F, Algeri I, et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine as possible drug in the treatment of hypothalamic amenorrhea. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1991;70:487–92.

28. Costa M, Canale D, Filicori M, et al. L-carnitine in idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a multicenter study. Andrologia 1994;26:155–9.

29. Vitali G, Parente R, Melotti C. Carnitine supplementation in human idiopathic asthenospermia: clinical results. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1995;21:157–9.

30. Moncada ML, Vicari E, Cimino C, et al. Effect of acetylcarnitine treatment in oligoasthenospermic patients. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis 1992;23:221–4.

31. No authors listed. Acetyl-L-Carnitine. Altern Med Rev 1999;4:438–41 [review].

32. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

33. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

34. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

35. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

36. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

37. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

38. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

39. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

40. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

41. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

42. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

43. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

44. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

45. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

46. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

47. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

48. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

49. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

50. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

51. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

52. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

53. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

54. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

55. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

56. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

57. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

58. Bianchi G, Vitali G, Caraceni A, et al. Symptomatic and neurophysiological responses of paclitaxel- or cisplatin-induced neuropathy to oral acetyl-L-carnitine. Eur J Cancer 2005;41:1746–50.

59. Famularo G, Moretti S, Marcellini S, et al. Acetyl-carnitine deficiency in AIDS patients with neurotoxicity on treatment with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. AIDS 1997;11:185–90.

60. Hart AM, Wilson AD, Montovani C, et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine: a pathogenesis based treatment for HIV-associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. AIDS2004;18:1549–60.

61. Herzmann C, Johnson MA, Youle M. Long-term effect of acetyl-L-carnitine for antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. HIV Clin Trials 2005;6:344–50.

62. Famularo G, Moretti S, Marcellini S, et al. Acetyl-carnitine deficiency in AIDS patients with neurotoxicity on treatment with antiretroviral nucleoside analogues. AIDS 1997;11:185–90.

63. Hart AM, Wilson ADH, Montovani C, et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine: a pathogenesis based treatment for HIV-associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. AIDS 2004;18:1549–60.

64. Herzmann C, Johnson MA, Youle M. Long-term effect of acetyl-L-carnitine for antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. HIV Clin Trials 2005;6:344–50.

65. Thal LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, et al. A 1-year multicenter placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1996;47:705–11.

66. Rai G, Wright G, Scott L, et al. Double-blind, placebo controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer’s dementia. Curr Med Res Opin 1990;11:638–47.

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